Also known as "artificial insemination". It consists of depositing semen directly into a woman's uterus. It is different from in vitro fertilization because the ovum is fertilized by the sperm naturally in the Fallopian tube, or "in vivo".
A natural (spontaneous) cycle or a cycle stimulated by medications (induced ovulation). In induced cycles, the ovary is stimulated to release a larger number of eggs (preferably 2 to 4) and thus increase the chances of getting pregnant.
As is the case with in vitro fertilization, intra-uterine insemination is done with serial ultrasonography. This way, it is possible to determine the best moment to deposit the semen in the uterine cavity.
The semen is prepared in the laboratory. There are various processing techniques that allow us to select and use only the best sperm, taking out the ones that are less likely to become fertilized and undesired cells, among others.
The insemination process is simple and painless, with no need for anesthesia. The doctor puts a thin catheter in the cervical canal (where menstrual fluids flow) and place the best sperm directly in the uterus. If fertilization occurs, it will take place in the woman's body, more specifically one of the Fallopian tubes. Thus, it is "in vivo" and not "in vitro".
Pregnancy rates are variable and depend on multiple factors. The chances of getting pregnant are about 20% per attempt.